12. The ‘Standards’ that stand out to me
This section provides a selection of the RRN Training standards, that caught my eye.
Standards 1.1–1.8 (These standards cover the part of the process that needs to be completed before a curriculum is developed.)
RRN TS Page 37
1.1.3 As part of the agreement to provide any training in physical restraint and before commencing the training, both the training provider and the trainer who delivers the programme must satisfy themselves that the commissioning organisation has the appropriate level of immediate life support training (including required refresher training). This should be in accordance with the guidelines of the UK Resuscitation Council for immediate life support – see Resuscitation Council (UK).
Note: The Immediate Life Support course accredited by Resuscitation Council (UK) is a One-Day course (6 hours 50 minutes)
RRN TS Page 39
1.2.1 The training provider (a named person) must develop a written proposal for the curriculum that covers both theory and practical elements. If restrictive interventions are being taught, participants must have completed a minimum of two days’ training (12 hours) in the underpinning theory, including training in preventative and secondary strategies, as specified in standards 2.1– 2.15, prior to participating in a practical, physical skills training session.
The majority of these two days must be face-to-face to ensure that discussion and demonstration can take place, and blended learning could be considered for some elements where it enhances understanding.
Training providers must be able to evidence that the training methods they choose are effective in supporting learning and cultural change.
RRN TS Page 45
1.3.7 These standards do not support the use of pain to gain compliance. Training providers must not include the teaching of any restrictive intervention that uses pain to force an individual to comply (see also appendices 21a and 21b).
RRN TS Page 46
1.4.4 Training providers must have a Restraint Reduction Plan which details measurable outcomes and actions that support the reduction of the use of restrictive practices. The plan must be updated at least annually and shared with commissioning organisations or published via Restraint Reduction Network membership.
RRN TS Page 47
1.5.1 Training providers must ensure that the views and experiences of people with lived experience of being in receipt of restrictive interventions should both inform and be explicit in training content.
1.6.5 Training providers should take into consideration the likely gender balance of participants and trainers. (No further advice or info on what action to take is provided?)
RRN TS Page 48
1.7.1 Accessible information must be available to everyone who will be directly or indirectly impacted by the training.
The information must:
- Be available to the commissioning organisation to disseminate and also readily available for any individual or representative of an individual who makes a request;
- Be in a format that best suits people’s communication requirements and needs;
- Cover both the theory and practical aspects of the training. All restrictive interventions that are to be taught must be described, alongside potential risks and the rationale for their inclusion in the programme.
Standards 2.1–2.15 (These Standards describe areas that the curriculum must cover.)
2.9.1 Training content must cover service factors that may include, among other things, inadequate policies, poor leadership, lack of appropriate training and supervision, inadequate staffing levels, negative team or organisational cultures, power imbalances, and lack of opportunity or encouragement for reflective practice.
Standards 3.1–3.6 (These standards relate to post-delivery processes.)
RRN TS Page 80
Training must include a competence-based assessment within each programme, with participants being assessed for both knowledge and skills. It is recognised that such assessments can only assess participants’ skills within a training environment.
3.1.1 Training providers must establish assessment criteria which are consistent with the level of training which has been commissioned.
3.1.2 The training provider must have assessment methods which take into account any reasonable adjustments that people need. (NB: When testing the competence to apply a restrictive intervention any reasonable adjustments must not compromise the safety of the restrictive intervention when it is applied in practice.)
3.1.5 If participants fail to reach the level of competency required by the training provider, the training provider must agree with the commissioning organisation (service provider) the necessary actions for the participant. This may for example involve a personal learning plan, a repetition of the training within six months, a bespoke training programme or a coaching intervention. The training provider must recommend that the participant should not be involved in the direct application of restrictive interventions until they are able to provide evidence of competence.
3.1.6 The training organisation must provide the commissioning organisation (service provider) with written feedback on the assessed performance of each course participant.
3.2.1 Training providers must ensure that their trainers maintain complete, accurate and up to date records of each course they deliver. (This must include confirmation of each participant’s fitness to attend the programme as well as any concerns related to the conduct or values of any of the participants.)
3.3.1 Training providers must have a policy that outlines the procedure for handling any concerns about the conduct of participants arising during training sessions. This policy must be available to the trainer before any training is delivered.
Training providers must have internal quality assurance systems and be able to provide evidence that they effectively monitor the quality and consistency of all of their training services.
Training providers must be able to evidence that their training services are being consistently delivered and that they routinely adhere to all the training standards.
Training providers must use their own quality assurance process to identify and action improvement priorities.
Note: Page 17 of the RRN Training Standards Certification Scheme (5. Assessor Competency) states: ‘All training organisations must have a named assessor. All new assessors must meet the competency criteria of the Restraint Reduction Network scheme and be subject to a peer review facilitated by CABs. Restraint Reduction Network will issue the competency criteria and peer review criteria to CABs. Assessors that do not meet the criteria may shadow but not lead an assessment.’
Standards 4.1–4.7 (These standards relate to trainers)
4.2.2 All trainers delivering training in restrictive interventions must hold current first aid certification including immediate life support.
4.3.2 All trainers must have been continuously employed in a support or care role within social care, education or a health care environment for a period of not less than two years.
4.3.3 All trainers must have successfully completed a face-to-face ‘train the trainer’ programme of a minimum of 30 hours or 5 days in length (which may be an accredited qualification for example a diploma or BTEC). The competence to deliver the whole of the curriculum must be assessed during and at the end of the train the trainer programme.
4.3.4 All senior trainers must successfully complete a minimum of two days’ refresher training annually.
4.3.5 Training providers must specify CPD requirements for all trainers who deliver their programmes. Evidence of relevant CPD records of trainers must be kept by the training provider to ensure quality, knowledge and skills are maintained.
4.6.6 Trainers must exclude any participant from the course whom they believe to be unsuitable for training.
4.7.2 All trainers must have at least one peer evaluation per year. Trainers must be able to show evidence of having one peer evaluation per year and be able to demonstrate how they have used it to further their professional development.
In some circumstances, a commissioning organisation will already have a model of preventative working in place, such as Safewards or Positive Behaviour Support, and this training may be delivered by another agency. In this circumstance the training programme that is commissioned with a restrictive intervention component may not need to include the content covered in standard 2.5, but the trainer must have the knowledge to teach all the other areas of the curriculum covered in the standards.